Book of the dead new kingdom -Corresponding to the north-south axis of the New Museum on level 0, the archaeological promenade, the architectonic and thematic backbone of the Museum Island, is being developed. The spells written on the papyrus helps him to be able to depart, in the form of the soul-bird, to this world and to return in the evening to travel with the sun through the netherworld. Westendorf, Wolfhart, editor Göttinger Totenbuchstudien. BCE, in the 19th dynasty of the New Kingdom of ancient. The Late Period Tradition at Akhmim. Gesammelte Beiträge des 2.
Book of the Dead Faulkner, , p. So begins Spell 1 of The Book of the Dead, here in this statement can be found clues to the theological thinking and purpose for which the Book of the Dead was written.
By examining the religious background and theological philosophy of the ancient Egyptian, which led to the development of funerary texts, may the main elements and functions of the Book of the Dead and the hopes it offered to it owner become clear.
When dealing with ancient religions and religious beliefs it is mindful to differentiate between modern interpretations and applications of religion and those same interpretations and applications in ancient cultures.
One needs to try and remove the yoke of monotheistic thought that has dominated religious doctrine for the past years, to open up the mind to a way of thinking so alien to modern people.
In ancient Egypt the gods are innumerable and were as real to the people of ancient Egypt as Jesus or Allah are today.
They held that each was one possibility and explanation among many equally valid views. It with this in mind that we must avoid judging ancient Egyptian religious thoughts with our own 21st century perspectives on what constitutes a religion.
The ancient Egyptian religion was not exclusive and allowed for unlimited gods. Instead, they allowed for multiple limited insights that are each considered valid in the proper context and approach.
Rather, it evolved around how people interacted with their gods. The ancient Egyptians practiced a belief system that was part totemism, part polytheism, and part ancestor worship.
Cults were focused on netjer ntr , which has been translated as meaning god. However, the ancient Egyptians applied this term to people and objects, which today we would hesitate to call gods.
There was the physical form and eight immortal or semi-divine parts that survived death. Each of these nine parts survived after death and required provisions and protection in the afterlife.
Each required sustenance and shelter if the deceased should not die a second time. These nine parts consisted of:.
It is for this reason that the deceased is at one and the same time in heaven with the circumpolar stars , in the celestial barque of the Sun God Re, under the earth, tilling the Elysian Fields, and in his tomb enjoying his victuals.
Just as there is a multiplicity of parts of the being of man, so there are many types of existence in the afterlife. Some represent philosophies of ancient times that instead of being forgotten are incorporated with current beliefs creating seemingly contradictory expectations of the afterlife.
The funerary literature aimed to address all these different beliefs so that the deceased might survive and be resurrected in the afterlife.
Here the deceased joins the gods and becomes part of the cosmic cycle of the universe in the form of the imperishable stars, the circumpolar stars.
Spell for opening the tomb]. Here the deceased joins with the cosmic cycle of the sun, sailing in the solar barque of the Sun God and taking his place as a divine being.
Spells 67, , , , , , b illustrate the concept of a solar afterlife in the barque of Re. In Spell 67 the deceased takes his place on the solar barque of the Sun God and the actions made to make his soul worthy of joining Re.
The rubric of the spell describes how it should be performed. In the Middle Kingdom the sun god no longer rules supreme; Osiris becomes the king with whom the blessed dead hope to spend eternity.
This new importance of Osiris in the afterlife can be see in his assumption of the role of judge of the dead.
Spell of the Book of the Dead deals entirely with the judgement of the dead, by which it was ascertained whether the deceased was worthy to enter the Kingdom of Osiris.
Spell deals with the description of the Field of Rushes or Reeds as a paradise for the blessed dead in the afterlife.
Here the deceased receives offerings of bread and beer, oxen and all good things, clothing and daily incense. The deceased was expected to plough, reap, to eat and drink, maintenance of irrigation works, and all the things that were done in life for all eternity.
Vignettes accompanying this spell show the deceased sailing in a boat laden with offerings, reaping wheat and driving oxen or ploughing the land.
At this time the shabiti formulas appear, to relieve the dead from all the hard work in the afterlife by providing a magical substitute worker.
The deceased could partake in the offerings brought to the tomb by the ancestors or from the magically activated Tables of Offerings inscribed on the tomb walls and papyrus.
These offerings provided sustenance not only to the Ka but also the Ba and Khaibit. Untold generations lived and died with the belief that those things required in life would also be needed in death.
The tomb provided the house for the physical body, the Ka, the Ba and the Khaibit. It also provided a place to partake in food and drink from offerings placed in the tomb.
The ancient Egyptian name for the Book of the Dead, is per em hru, which have been variously translated as meaning, "coming forth from the day", or " coming forth by day".
The Book of the Dead is a group of funerary chapters, which began to appear in ancient Egypt around BC. Why is it called the Book of the Dead? This is the name given by Richard Lepsius to the group in his publication of a Ptolemaic Period manuscript with the longest selection of the formulae known to him.
This was the first modern edition of the formulae. Lepsius seems to have borrowed the term from contemporary inhabitants of the Theban cemeteries, who used the Arabic phrase 'books of the dead' to denote any papyrus roll in a burial; the great majority of such papyrus book rolls in Theban burials were funerary manuscripts with selections from this set of two hundred formulae.
What was the Egyptian name for the Book of the Dead? Ancient Egyptian manuscripts do not have any title page, but some compositions were identified by an introductory phrase.
Books of the Dead sometimes begin 'beginning of the formulae for going out in the day'. Some manuscripts introduce additional formulae with a note 'added to the formulae for going out in the day'.
In the Third Intermediate Period tenth century BC and the late Ptolemaic to early Roman Period first century BC , burials regularly included two funerary manuscripts, and in these cases the Book of the Dead formuale were identified as 'the book roll with Going out in the day'.
How was a selection of formulae made for a particular manuscript? We have no explicit written sources for the commissioning of a Book of the Dead, and it is not known whether personal selection played a part, or even at what stage in a career a person might commission a funerary manuscript.
In the late Ptolemaic Period to early Roman Period, a couple of manuscripts indicate that the son commissioned the roll.
For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.
The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.
Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects;  the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.
The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.
In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied.
It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.
An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.
In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.
There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.
While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.
These statuettes were inscribed with a spell, also included in the Book of the Dead , requiring them to undertake any manual labour that might be the owner's duty in the afterlife.
The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.
Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.
There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins ,  reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".
Then the dead person's heart was weighed on a pair of scales, against the goddess Maat , who embodied truth and justice.
Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.
Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".
This scene is remarkable not only for its vividness but as one of the few parts of the Book of the Dead with any explicit moral content. The judgment of the dead and the Negative Confession were a representation of the conventional moral code which governed Egyptian society.
For every "I have not John Taylor points out the wording of Spells 30B and suggests a pragmatic approach to morality; by preventing the heart from contradicting him with any inconvenient truths, it seems that the deceased could enter the afterlife even if their life had not been entirely pure.
A Book of the Dead papyrus was produced to order by scribes. They were commissioned by people in preparation for their own funeral, or by the relatives of someone recently deceased.
They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,  perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.
In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.
Most owners were men, and generally the vignettes included the owner's wife as well. Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.
The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m.
The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.
The words peret em heru , or 'coming forth by day' sometimes appear on the reverse of the outer margin, perhaps acting as a label. Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later.
The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.